The Immaculate Virgin ~ SOLD
ca. 1550
34" x 31.5"
Painting, oil on panel
Region: Valencia, Spain
The symbols that surround the Immaculate Virgin come from the Song of Songs, from which many of the litanies derive, as an important immaculist source. Such labelled symbols from the Marian litanies often accompanied images of the Immaculate Conception.

From the Song of Songs
The lily among thorns ("Sicut lilium inter spinas" Song 2:2). This is almost invariably present.
Tower of David ("Turris davidica cum propugnaculis" Song 4:4)
Enclosed garden ("Hortus conclusus" Song 4:12)
The fountain of the gardens ("Fons hortorum" Songs 4:15)
The well of living waters ("Puteus aquarum viventium" Songs 4:15)

Other symbols include:
The sun ("Electa ut sol")
The moon ("Pulchra ut luna")
The star ("stella maris")
The Cedar of Lebanon ("Sicut cedrus exaltata")
The olive tree ("Oliva speciosa")
The Rose garden of Jericho ("Plantatio rosae")
The Rod of Jesse ("Virga Iesse floruit")
The Gate of Heaven ("Porta coeli")
The City of God ("Civitas Dei")
The unblemished mirror ("Speculum sine macula")

In such images, the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception is nearly always identified by a quotation from Songs 4:7: "Tota pulchra es amica mea et macula non est in te" - "Thou art all fair, my love; there is no spot in thee." Furthermore, Solomon and David, as possible authors, are often present. Sicut Lilium provided the title for Nogarolo's Office: "As the lily among thorns, so is my love among the daughters." (Song 2:2)